Among the non-Iranians, there are many immigrants from Afghanistan , Iraq and Pakistan. As neighbouring areas with cultural ties,  there has been a long history of population movements between Khorasan and Afghanistan. Even before the political frontier between Iran and Afghanistan, the Persian-speaking inhabitants from the provinces of Herat and Farah in Afghanistan had had kinship, as well as ethnical, religious, or economic relations with the Iranian province of Khorasan especially Mashhad, where people speak a dialect akin with Harat dialect.
One of the districts inhabited by Afghan immigrants is Golshahr. Today, the holy shrine and its museum hold one of the most extensive cultural and artistic treasuries of Iran, in particular manuscript books and paintings. Several important theological schools are associated with the shrine of the Eighth Imam. It has been a magnet for travellers since medieval times.
As an important problem, the duration when new passengers stay in Mashhad has been considerably reduced to 2 days nowadays and they prefer to finish their trip immediately after doing pilgrimage and shopping in the markets. Although mainly inhabited by Muslims, there were in the past some religious minorities in Mashhad, mainly Jews who were forcibly converted to Islam in after the Allahdad incident took place for Mashhadi Jews in On the outside, they adapted to the Islamic way of life, but often secretly kept their faith and traditions.
According to the writings and documents, the oldest existing carpet attributed to the city belongs to the reign of Shah Abbas Abbas I of Persia. Among other major industries in the city are the nutrition industries , clothing , leather , textiles , chemicals , steel and non-metallic mineral industries , construction materials factories , the handicraft industry , and the metal industries. Religious shrines are the most powerful attractions for foreign travelers; every year, 20 to 30 million pilgrims from Iran and more than 2 million pilgrims and tourists from elsewhere around the world come to Mashhad.
Unemployment, poverty, drug addiction, theft, and sexual exploitation are the most important social problems of the city. The divorce rate in Mashhad had increased by 35 percent by At the same time, the city has kept its character as a goal of pilgrimage, dominated by the strength of the economic and political authority of the Astan Quds Razavi, the administration of the Shrine waqf, probably the most important in the Muslim world [ citation needed ] and the largest active bonyad in Iran.
Padideh Shandiz International Tourism Development Company, an Iranian private joint-stock holding company, behaves like a public company by selling stocks despite being a joint-stock in the field of restaurants, tourism and construction, [ citation needed ] with a football club Padideh F. The depositors of the first institution have faced problem in receiving cash from the institution. Companies such as Smart-innovators in Mashhad are pioneers in electrical and computer technology. The language mainly spoken in Mashhad is Persian with a variating Mashhadi accent, which can at times, prove itself as a sort of dialect.
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The Mashhadi Persian dialect is somewhat different from the standard Persian dialect in some of its tones and stresses. Likewise, the dialect of Herati in Western Afghanistan is quite similar to the Persian dialect in Mashhad and is akin to the Persian dialects of Khorasan Province, notably those of Mashhad.
Hazaragi is another dialect spoken by Hazara people who live as a diaspora community in Mashhad. Long a center of secular and religious learning, Mashhad has been a center for the Islamic arts and sciences as well as piety and pilgrimage. Mashhad was an educational centre, with a considerable number of Islamic schools madrasas, the majority of them, however, dating from the later afavid period. The number of seminary schools in Mashhad is now thirty nine and there are an estimated seminarians in the city.
The Ferdowsi University of Mashhad , named after the great Iranian poet, is located here and is regarded as the third institution in attracting foreign students, mainly from Afghanistan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, Bahrain, Central Asian republics. The Razavi University of Islamic Sciences, founded in , stands at the centre of town, within the shrine complex.
Mashhad is also home to one of the oldest libraries of the Middle-East called the Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi with a history of over six centuries. A museum is also home to over 70, rare manuscripts from various historical eras. In , a new edifice was designed and constructed by the well-known Iranian architect Dariush Borbor to house the museum and the ancient manuscripts. Kashmar rug is a type of Persian rug indigenous to this region. Mashhad active galleries include: During the recent years, Mashhad has been a clerical base to monitor the affairs and decisions of state.
Apart from Imam Reza shrine , there are a number of large parks, the tombs of historical celebrities in nearby Tus and Nishapur , the tomb of Nader Shah and Kooh Sangi park. The Koohestan Park-e-Shadi Complex includes a zoo, where many wild animals are kept and which attracts many visitors to Mashhad. It is also home to the Mashhad Airbase formerly Imam Reza airbase , jointly a military installation housing Mirage aircraft, and a civilian international airport.
Some points of interest lie outside the city: The three were all disciples of Imam Reza. Among the other sights are the tomb of the poet Ferdowsi in Tus, 24 kilometres 15 miles distance, and the summer resorts at Torghabeh , Torogh , Akhlamad, Zoshk , and Shandiz.
The Shah Public Bath, built during the Safavid era in , is an outstanding example of the architecture of that period. It was recently restored, and is to be turned into a museum.
Mashhad is served by the Mashhad International Airport , which handles domestic flights to Iranian cities and international flights, mostly to neighbouring Arab countries. It is connected to 57 destinations and has frequent flights to 30 cities within Iran and 27 destinations in the Central Asia, the Middle East, East Asia and Europe. The second line which is a metro line with In 20 March two station were added to the network in test operational mode and the first interchange station was added to the network.
Mashhad is connected to three major rail lines: Some freight trains continue from Sarakhs towards Uzbekistan and to Kazakhstan , but have to change bogies because of the difference in Rail gauge.
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A rail line is being constructed off the Mashhad-Bafgh line to connect Mashhad to Herat in Afghanistan , but has not yet been completed and one is planned to connect to the Gorgan railhead and the port of Bandar Torkaman on the Caspian Sea to the west. Passenger rail services are provided by Raja Passenger Trains Company  and all trains are operated by R. Road 95 links Mashhad south to Torbat-e Heydarieh and Birjand. Road 44 goes west towards Shahrud and Tehran. Road 22 travels northwest towards Bojnurd. They were elected to the Parliament on 26 February In , an Iranian principlist political group, Front of Islamic Revolution Stability which is partly made up of former ministers of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi ,  gained a landslide victory in Mashhad City Council,  which on September 23, , elected Seyed Sowlat Mortazavi as mayor, who was former governor of the province of South Khorasan and the city of Birjand.
Mashhad is the major trade center of saffron in Iran. Handicraft products are sold in Shandiz and Torghabeh. Some Iranian Handicrafts metalwork in Torghabeh. Haruniyeh Dome in Tous. Mesrop Armenian church in Mashhad. Shandiz a tourist town near Mashhad. Shashlik , one of the Iranian tasty foods in Mashhad. Pistols from Afsharid Empire era at Naderi Museum. Faculty of Science , Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Faculty of Engineering , Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Goharshad Mosque , Abbasid Ivan in Atiq yard.
Shandiz Restaurant, serving traditional Iranian cuisine. The following Shahanshahs had Mashhad as their capital:. Manouchehr Eghbal , 65th Prime Minister of Iran. Abdolhossein Teymourtash , politician and statesman, the first Minister of Court of Iran. Jabir ibn Hayyan , was a prominent polymath , a chemist and alchemist , astronomer and astrologer , engineer , geographer , philosopher , physicist , and pharmacist and physician.
Rafi Pitts , Iranian film director. Heshmat Mohajerani , footballer and former football manager. Rasoul Khadem , Wrestling coach.outer-edge-design.com/components/cam/2365-what-is.php
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Reza Ghoochannejhad , footballer. Mashhad is twinned with:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Mashhadi disambiguation. For the type of mausoleums, see Mashhad architecture. City in Razavi Khorasan, Iran. From up: City of Paradise Shahr-e Behesht.
See also: Timeline of Mashhad.
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Main article: Imam Reza shrine rebellion. Iran Meteorological Organization records ,  temperatures ,  precipitation ,  humidity ,  days with precipitation ,   sunshine . Ethnic Groups Persians. Imam Reza shrine. A major contributor to this section appears to have a close connection with its subject. Please discuss further on the talk page. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Mashhad Light Rail. Islamic City Council of Mashhad. Proma Hypermarket. Tous Museum near Mashhad.
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Mashhad Urban Railway. Mashhad Metro LRT network sign. Imam Hussein Square. An old photo of Goharshad Mosque. Padideh Shandiz Tourism Center. Kang countryside.
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